Human history here extends back more than 10,000 years ago to man's arrival in the Southwest. The first people that can be
positively identified in this region were known as the Basketmakers. They were probably forerunners of the Pueblo Indians who were farmers and traders.
Tule Springs, a few miles north of Las Vegas provides the earliest evidence of man in the Lake Mead area. Here archeologists
found fire hearths and stone tools in association with Mammoth bones and other Pleistocene fauna. The evidence indicates that these early people were part of a widespread hunting culture
that was dependent upon Mammoth, Bison, and other big game. They were probably nomadic and moved in small bands or family groups.
Radiocarbon dating of charcoal from the hearths at Tule Springs, excavated by the Southwest Museum, yielded dates of over
23,800 years ago. Because of the possible contamination of the charcoal before the radiocarbon test, many archeologists feel that these dates are too early. Later excavations under better
controls yielded the following sequence of dates for Tule Springs:
40,000+ years ago - Pleistocene fauna found in an old stream channel. Presence of Man not established.
30,000-15,000 years ago - a shallow lake existed near Tule Springs.
13,000-11,000 years ago - probable evidence of Man with extinct Pleistocene fauna.
11,000 years ago - definite evidence of Man.
So, at present, we can say that Man might have been in the Lake Mead area more than 20,000 years ago, probably here about
13,000 years ago, and definitely here by 11,000 years ago.
The recorded history of the area began in 1826, when Jedediah Smith passed through on his first Southwest Expedition in
search of beaver. Other early explorers were John C. Fremont, Lt. Edward Beale, Lt. Joseph C. Ives, and Major John Wesley Powell.
The explorers were followed by colonization and exploitation. Mormon farm settlements and roaring mining camps sprang up
along the rivers and in the mountains. Lake Mead was named in honor of Dr. Elwood Mead. As Commissioner of Reclamation from 1924 - 1936, he drafted new specifications for a giant project
that would dam the Colorado River, impound the world's (at that time) largest artificial lake and provide flood control, irrigation supply and power generation. That project was
Boulder Dam. We know it by a later name change as Hoover Dam.
In 1935, Hoover Dam was completed and Lake Mead formed, covering such historic Mormon sites as Callville, Rioville, and St.
Bullhead City was named for Bull's Head Rock, an old landmark located along the Colorado River. In the years of steamboat
travel up the river, it was used as a navigation point. As the waters rose behind Davis Dam, creating Lake Mohave, Bull's Head Rock was gradually covered, with only a small,
undistinguishable part of it remaining uncovered.
Spanish explorer, Melchlor Diaz, discovered this area in 1540, years before Mayflower landed on the East Coast. And, in 1776,
Father Garces crossed the Colorado River here, nearly a month before the Declaration of Independence was signed.
From 1852 to 1909, steamboats made regular trips up the Colorado River from Port Isabel in the Gulf of California. These
sternwheeler river boats played an important part in the early development of the areas bordering the Colorado River.
In October, 1857, a caravan of 28 camels crossed the Colorado River below the present Bullhead City. Lieutenant Edward F.
Beale was testing camels for desert travel for the War Department. With him was Hi-Jolly, a trained camel handler from Asis Minor.
The site for Davis Dam was selected in 1902, but construction did not start until 1942. It was discontinued in December of
that year due to the war. Construction resumed in April, 1946, and the dam was completed in 1953.
The Katherine Gold Mine was discovered in 1900 and operated intermittently until 1930. The mine and, subsequently, the
surrounding area, was named for the sister of one of the discoverers.
On the Nevada side of the lake are the Newberry Mountains, with a graded road crossing them at Christmas Tree Pass, named for
the juniper and pinon pine at the higher elevations. A number of trees along the road have been "decorated" as Christmas trees with old tin cans and lids (according to legend,
by old miners).
At the base of Christmas Tree Pass is Grapevine Canyon, an old Indian camping area with extensive petroglyphs, a short walk
from the road.
Cottonwood Island, quite lush with grasses and cottonwood trees, was a perfect place for the miners to raise their stock.
In 1867, the Army made the island an outpost. They pastured their cattle and assigned a small detachment to tend them, but a flood
the same year drowned or scattered most of the herd. None of the cattle were found.
Gold was discovered around Searchlight in 1897. The first claim became known as the Duplex Mine. The Quartette Mining Company built
a 20-stamp mill on the Colorado River, and in 1901 and 1902, constructed a 16 mile narrow gauge railroad from the Quartette Mine to the mill. Railroad equipment was brought in by barge
from Needles. The locomotive carried ore to the mill and, occasionally, passengers rode down to the steamboat port. The locomotive could run on oil from Searchlight or driftwood from the
Colorado River. For safety, it was never turned, but always headed toward Searchlight. Operations of the mill and railroad stopped when a new mill was built in Searchlight. In 1906, the
river mill was relocated at Searchlight, beside the new building. The rails were sold to J. F. Kent, removed, and used on the Yellow Pine line from Jean to Goodsprings in 1910. The
foundations of the river mill is about 30 feet below the surface of Lake Mohave in Cottonwood harbor.
In the 1930's, the Homestake Mine in the Newberry Mountains operated an amalgamation and cyaniding plant on Cottonwood Island
for processing gold and silver ore. Mining operations ceased in 1953 as Davis Dam was completed. The Island is also under Lake Mohave waters.
The "Arivada" was a river boat which provided ferry service across the river from 1916 to 1920. It was located 2 1/2
miles south of Cottonwood. There was also an aerial cableway built one mile north of the present Cottonwood Cove. It transported automobiles across the river on a rickety framework. It
was said once you crossed the river to the other side, you would never come back. It was in operation until the 1930's. The "Searchlight" was a river steamer that plied the
Colorado from it's mouth as far upstream as the former town of Callville near present day Callville Bay.